The "Last Call" page has appeared weekly on OKthePK's web site over the past couple of years. Each week a different
article told the story about various railway items of interest. While some of the articles were saved they were no longer available
online. Several of those about the Canadian Pacific Railway have been compiled here on this page. There is insufficient room to display
more than a few articles per page. As a result, "Canadian Pacific Odds and Ends - Part One", starts this month with more parts
to follow as time progresses. Every month they will be archived to the CPR Set-off Siding web site for future online retrieval.
Beginning next month look under the articles section on the CPR Set-off Siding web site to
find these archived pages.
The Angus Shops of the Canadian Pacific Railway
October 17, 1912
The Canadian Pacific Railway maintain at this point, which is near the city of Montreal, the largest and best equipped shops in
North America for the maintenance and manufacture of railway rolling stock. It would be impossible to secure even a slight idea of their
immensity from a photograph but in order to show something of their extent the drawing, Fig. 1, has been prepared. The various buildings
may be located and identified by reference to the following table, the numbers of which correspond with those on the
drawing. 1. Locomotive shop.
2. Grey iron foundry.
3. Pattern shops.
4. Pattern storage.
5. Car machine shop.
6. Truck shop.
7. Freight car shop.
8. Wheel foundry.
9. Frog and switch shop.
10. General store.
11. Blacksmiths' shop.
12. Power house.
13. Shavings vault.
14. Cabinet and upholstery shop.
15. Planing mill.
16. Passenger car paint.
17. Passenger car erecting.
18. Hardwood kiln.
19. Softwood kiln.
20. General offices.
21. Oil house.
22. Scrap platform.
23. Moulding sand shed.
24. Core sand shed.
25. Scrap bin.
26. Sand shed.
27. Moulding sand shed.
28. Wheel breaker shed.
29. Coal bin.
30. Lumber yard office.
31. Iron shed.
32. Coal shed.
33. Scrap platforms.
34. Watchman's shelters.
35. Coke and wood storage sheds.
36. Locomotive track scale.
37. Transfer table.
38. 75,000-gal. tank, elevated.
39. Reservoir, 500,000 gals.
40. Freight car painters' clothes shed.
41. Freight car paint shop.
42. Lunch room No. 1.
43. Lunch room No. 2.
44. Scrap iron shed.
45. Passenger car paint shop.
46. S.E. Passenger car shop.
47. Upholstering shop.
48. Carpet beating shed.
49. Sand shed.
50. Flue and Flanging shop.
51. Store for castings.
52. Passenger shelter.
53. Hard coal bin.
54. Hose house.
55. Hose house with tower.
56. Brass shops.
57. Coal bin.
58. Asbestos shed.
59. Oxy-acetylene gas house.
60. Rail saw office.
61. Coal bin.
62. Sand blast shed.
63. Tender and tender truck shop.
Systematic Control of Locomotive Repairs
Vol. XXIV., No. 1
By J.H. Rodgers
30 December 1920
The wide and varied detail work that
is required in the repairing of locomotives would seem to present, particularly to the layman, an engineering problem where considerable
difficulty might be experienced in obtaining a satisfactory solution by adopting any systematic method of pre-arranged classification of
repairs on each and every locomotive as it is taken into the shop.
Three score years and ten are set down as the allotted age of man, but his own weaknesses, and the uncertainties of life, provide many
opportunities for relentless fate to place him under the care of a physician or in the hospital, for varied periods, to undergo light or
heavy repair, or general rebuilding. Locomotives are not unlike human beings in this respect. The periodical "life" of a
locomotive is estimated on a mileage basis, this depreciating as life is extended, and while many engines may, and frequently do, cover
the scheduled distance before being shopped a great number must necessarily be taken out of service at irregular intervals and placed in
the shops to undergo "hospital" treatment, in order to fit them for the service they are called upon to
Engines may be taken off the road for one, or more, of a
multitude of causes, and it is this varied combination of "infirmities" that has, until recently, made it so perplexing to
draw up effective repair schedules. The principles of production control have been universally practised for many years by large
manufacturing industries, but apart from localized effort in some particular department no general organized movement has been made by
railway companies to prove its adaptability to general repair activities.
In the case of new equipment units, where the work, from the rail up, is that of straight manufacture, the problem does not present any
serious obstacles, but on repair work, and this constitutes the bulk of any railroad shop activity, the inauguration and subsequent
successful operation of an efficient production control system, is, apparently, encompassed with such complicacy that considerable
courage and executive ability are fundamentally essential, on the part of those in charge, before the work can be carried on with any
degree of permanent success.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is probably the pioneer railroad company to recognize the economic possibilities from a well-organized
production department, not alone in the construction of new locomotives, freight, and passenger cars, but also in the general repair and
maintenance of all motive power and rolling stock passing through the shop. When the system was initiated at Angus shops, nearly three
years ago, it was not started on an experimental basis. The executive heads, believing that systematic methods from a production
standpoint could be successfully applied to railroad repair work as well as other lines of industry, placed the control of the
organization work in the hands of capable and experienced officials, to establish the department on a firm foundation so that future
building would improve, and not detract from, the strength of the structure.
The estimated repairs to any locomotive is based on the road
report and the initial inspection made by the shops inspector and the general shop foreman. It might be stated that road requirements,
to a large extent, determine the particular engines that are to be taken into the shops from time to time. Under normal conditions
engines would take their turn on a mileage basis in being shopped, but urgent demands are often made for extra output of a certain class
of passenger or freight engine which must be met irrespective of any regular order.
After the preliminary examination the engine repairs are classified as 4A, 313, IC, etc. At Angus these classifications are indicated as
follows: No. 1 new boiler, No. 2 new firebox, No. 3 any new firebox sheet, No. 4 all tubes, No. 5 2-inch tubes, No. 6 specific
repairs. With the exception of No. 6, all repairs include the replacement, or re-turning of the tyres, and general inspection and
necessary repairing of all engine parts. Suffixes are used in conjunction with repair classification to indicate work not otherwise
specified. These suffixes are: A denotes wreck, B denotes initial application of stoker, C denotes initial application of
superheater, D denotes initial application of valve gear, E denotes conversion from compound to simple, or vice versa.
For instance, if an engine, after preliminary inspection, is found to require a new set of tubes throughout, and to have a stoker
applied, she will be classified as a No. 4B repair, and this symbol will be placed on all charts and correspondence in connection with
the work on that particular engine. 2C would indicate that repairs called for a new firebox and the initial application of a
The form shown in Fig. 1 is that for the repair engine output. This
specifies the gang and the foreman in whose charge the engine has been placed, and the date the engine is to be delivered. These forms
are made out for a period of thirty-one days but are revised weekly to conform to changes necessary in the schedule. These alterations,
when necessary, are made after the engine has been a couple of days in the shop. The reason for this is due to the fact that the
preliminary inspection does not always disclose the exact nature of the total repairs required. This can only be determined after the
hydrostatic test has been made, which is carried out after the motion work has been dismantled and the driving wheels and truck have
been removed. This pressure test, together with a closer physical examination, either confirms the first inspection, or brings to light
additional defects, the latter invariably being confined to boiler conditions.
In the preliminary inspection the engine may have been classed as a No. 4 repair, but when subjected to the cold water test, may develop
further firebox or boiler trouble, calling for the renewal of a firebox or throat sheet, or perhaps an entire new firebox. Should such
conditions arise, it becomes necessary to reclassify the engine as a No. 3 or No. 2 repair, in which case readjustment of schedule
becomes imperative, so as to coordinate the work of the different departments to which the various parts of the engine have been
Under ordinary conditions locomotive repairs at Angus are based on an
eighteen-day schedule. Cases are on record where engines have been overhauled and delivered in fourteen days, but the general time
ranges from sixteen to thirty days, depending on the special work required. In every case, the first four days of dismantling and the
last seven days of erection are practically identical on all engines, these periods having become fixed items in all repair schedules,
The hydro-test on the boiler is the main factor in determining the "in-between-period", as all other repair requirements can
usually be classified before the engine enters the shop.
However, once the patient is taken into the hospital and assigned a bed, the true nature of his illness and the character of the
operation necessary can only be definitely decided after professional diagnosis and X-ray examination.
When changes are made in repair schedule, due to the developments of additional defects, it necessitates prompt action on the part of
the schedule department in notifying all divisions of the shop that this particular engine has been "set back", that is, her
delivery date has been extended to conform to the new conditions. If this means that a delay of several days will be necessary, work on
detail repairs on that engine must be suspended and the effort directed to work that is required. It is useless to provide clothes for a
sick man until he is well enough to put them on. It might be said that it is good policy to have the garments ready. This would be true
if it was not for the fact that another man was being kept in bed a day or two longer because his clothes were not at hand. Idle
locomotives are items of expense on a railroad company's cost sheets. In order, therefore, to maintain the monthly output from the shop,
it is necessary to so arrange the incoming engines that ample provision may be made for extended repairs to one previously taken
When an engine has been "set back" on schedule
another one is advanced, and the different departments are advised as to the changes effected. The small form shown in Fig. 2 is used
for this purpose.
On the ordinary repair, detail work on certain engines is carried on simultaneously in all departments during the period of
dismantling and the erection date for each particular piece of equipment. A summary of an eighteen-day schedule is shown in Fig. 3, this
representing a No. 4 repair.The first four days' work, which is the same for all engines,
comprises: First day, taking the engine in the shop, hoisting the engine and removing the wheels. Second day, cold water test and
general stripping operations. Third day, material and parts delivered to different departments and the headers taken out. Fourth day,
tubes taken out and cylinder and valve bushes inspected. For the next seven days repair work is proceeding in each and every department
so that on the eleventh day, or in the case of more extensive repairs, on the seventh day prior to scheduled date of engine delivery,
work is started on reassembly and erection, which on the form here shown is being performed on the dates included between the eleventh
and the eighteenth day, the latter corresponding to the date on which the engine is again placed in commission.
In order that the entire program of repairs may proceed with uniform regularity
and insure delivery to the erection shop on or before the date specified, progress sheets are kept constantly up to date, so that a
glance at the day's report will show the actual conditions as they exist. If any particular department has "fallen down" on
the schedule, the schedule man loses no time in making an investigation, with the result that the cause of the delay is located,
reported, and recorded, and immediate steps taken to remedy the trouble. A portion of one of these progress sheets (for the week ending
4 December) is shown in Fig. 4. Every shop foreman, and every other department head, is given one of these sheets, so that he is
constantly advised of changes in the schedule and the delivery date of each engine. This enables him to so regulate his work that his
own shop schedule will not fall behind, unless it be for causes beyond his control, in which case the schedule man has knowledge of it
before it is a day old, and every effort is made to adjust the irregularity.The responsibility of this adjustment is
one of the routine features of the production department.
The form shown in Fig. 5 serves as a check on the progress of the work passing through the machine shops. Provision is made for
thirty-two engines and check marks are made in the small squares when machine work on that specific part has been completed. These
progress sheets are collected daily by the schedule man and the progress recorded on the reference charts kept in the office of the
supervisor of production.
A section of the form used for recording
the date of delivery of finished material from the West machine shop to the erecting shop is shown in Fig. 6. The material list contains
38 separate items, these being component parts of the equipment shown in the third division of the machine shop progress report. In
conjunction with the two last mentioned reports, loose-leaf, letter size, typewritten reports are compiled for the current week, showing
the delivery dates to the erecting shop, of the various units for all engines on that week's schedule. Included in the report is the
equipment still due and also what is required for the first two days of the following week, this latter serves as a guide when making up
the report for the next period. Appended to this report is a list of the engines due to be completed that week. This form is shown in
When new cylinders are required in the specified
repairs to an engine, the production of these is so scheduled that they will be cast, machined, and delivered to the erecting shop at
the proper time for reassembly. The charge hand has no personal worries as to where he will get the work, does not require to visit the
machine shop to see if the cylinder is ready, nor has he to take the responsibility of getting the cylinder to the erecting shop after
the work is done. Every detail, apart from the actual duties of the men, is taken care of by the production department.
The form used for grey iron foundry work on cylinders is shown in Fig. 8. This gives the requisition number, pattern number, engine, or
shop order number, and the various operations necessary in the making and cleaning of the casting. This schedule provides for delivery
of the rough cylinder to the machine shop, eight working days after the order has been given to the foundry foreman. If it should so
happen that the shaking out takes place on a Saturday, the cooling would take place over the week end, and in this way one full day
would be saved.
In every branch of repair work carried on at Angus, the object has been to so co-ordinate the tasks of the various departments that a
spirit of harmony pervades the entire organization. As the inauguration of the present system proceeded it became more and more evident
to all foremen and supervisors, that because certain of their duties (which might be classified as clerical duties)
were transferred to the production department they suffered no loss of prestige or position, and the real effect was to enable the
foremen to spend more time in their shops in supervising the
men, getting out the required work, and doing it right.
The production department acts in the capacity of a clearing house for shops' information on output, and it obviously follows that the
routing of work and the tracing of material to the shops can be better done by specialists than by foremen whose time can be spent to
better advantage in the shops.
Testing Device for Air Brake Plants
Toronto Ontario - The
accompanying photograph shows the style of portable apparatus we are using for making repair yard tests of air brake and air signal
equipment on passenger, and the air brake on freight cars.
The cars are coupled not more than ten at a time. The machine is then wheeled to end of train, and hose 5 connected to air-brake
train pipe, and hose 6 to air signal. The connection at opposite side of truck is made by means of a long length of hose coupled to a
pipe between the tracks in repair yard, which comes from main reservoir in the shop, underground.
All angle cocks, except that at rear end of train, having been previously opened, all cut out cocks opened, all hand brakes released,
all release valves closed and retaining valve handles turned down, the air is then cut in by opening cocks 3 and 4 in brake and signal
train pipes respectively. While train is charging, a careful search is made for leaks, including triple exhausts and car discharge
valves. All leaks found, having been stopped, and the train now being charged to 90 pounds pressure in brake system, and 40 in air
signal, the cock 7 on reducing valve is closed, and the small gage on signal line carefully watched to see if all leaks have been
stopped, and if all is satisfactory, cock 7 is opened, and five blasts of the air signal whistle must be got from each car in train.
Cock 3 is now closed in air brake train pipe, cock 1 closed, and 2 opened, which makes black hand of duplex gage connect direct to
train pipe behind cut-out cock 3. It is then carefully watched to see if all leaks have been stopped. This having been done cock 2 is
again closed, and cocks 1 and 3 opened, and by means of the engineer's valve a reduction of 15 pounds is made in train pipe pressure,
and valve is lapped. Cocks 3 and 1 are then immediately closed, and cock 2 opened and engineer's valve moved into release position. The
piston travel on each car is measured and marked with chalk on cylinder head, returning again to the first car so marked, a second
measurement is now made, and if any piston by this time has lost over 1/2 inch travel, the packing will receive inspection later.
The testing apparatus is now returned to, and cock 1 opened gradually, causing air to feed via small gage pipe into train pipe, and a
slow, steady rise produced in train pipe pressure, which can be seen on black hand of duplex gage, as it is now connected to train pipe.
When a rise of pressure of 7 to 8 pounds has been made, cock 1 is closed and train inspected to see if all brakes have released. If any
brake has not released, cock 1 is again opened and a faster rise is caused to train pipe pressure, this also failing to release this
brake, the triple is marked to have piston inspected.
The train pipe now being fully recharged to 90 pounds pressure, cock 2 is closed, and cock 3 opened, the engineer's valve is again
used, and all the air exhausted by placing handle in position 4 and leaving it there. If the blow from train pipe exhaust does not
shortly cease, it is a sign of leaky checks, and any brake piston now losing travel, that held it before, is marked to have check
The retaining valves are now turned up and handle of engineer's valve moved into release position, the retainer pipes are inspected
for leaks, and brakes examined to see if any have come off, any so found, the retaining valve must be inspected, and if in good order
the pipe must be more carefully examined.
The retaining valves are now examined, and if the air is still exhausting from small port, and the exhaust is weak, when handle is
turned down, the retaining valve must be inspected and made tight.
The piston travel throughout the train is now adjusted to between 6 and 7 inches.
C.R. Ord - Air Brake Inspector Canadian Pacific Railway.
Canadian Pacific C-Liner Interior Photos
6 November 2012
Coquitlam British Columbia - Canadian
Pacific 4104 was built in Kingston, Ontario, by the Canadian Locomotive Company (CLC) in 1954. It is a CLC model CPA 16-4 class DFA-16g
producing 1,600 horsepower. Starting in 1951 CLC constructed 16 units beginning with class DFA-16c numbers 4064 to 4065, in 1952 DFA-16b
numbers 4052 to 4057, in 1953 DFA-16d numbers 4076 to 4081, and finally in 1954 DFA-16g numbers 4104 to 4105.
CP 4104 worked until it was retired on 20 Jun 1975, and then it was stored at the CP's Ogden Shop in Calgary. I don't know the dates of
movements and subsequent ownerships off hand, so I won't speculate here. The unit moved around a bit after being donated to the Museum
at High River Alberta, and then ultimately ended up back at Alyth Yard in Calgary, then Ogden under the ownership of John Burbridge,
hence the JKBX 4104 reporting mark. With cooperation from CP over time much restoration work was completed on the unit.
In any event, changes at CP dictated the equipment must move on, so off it went in company with JKBX 7009, a Fairbanks Morse H16-66,
bound for display at the soon to be renovated station in Nelson, British Columbia. Somehow they got sent to Coquitlam Yard en route to
No doubt some of you may be familiar with Fairbank Morse engines and locomotives, however, I'm sure many have never even seen one,
let alone know how they look from the inside. The 4101 is a classic C-Liner. Many people I've talked to are amazed to find out that not
all C-Liner A units are the same. The trained eye can spot the differences between an EMD F Unit, Alco FPA, or a CLC C-Liner in an
instant. Just like many can name the make, model, and year of every old car running around town.
Anyhow, the basic systems are all similar of course. Engine turns generator, power goes through switch gear to motors attached to
wheels, and train moves. The difference is in the details. These first four shots are views inside the cab of
Although a little dusty, it's almost as if one could sit there today, release the brakes and give the
throttle a nudge to head out. Compared to modern cab layouts though, there are quite a few differences and omissions. There are no solid
state controls on this baby. The closest thing would be the 25 watt radio equipment, which is all intact. I remember when we had to lug
those goofy radios all over the shop. Replacing one on any C-Liner A unit was a pain due to the vertical ladder into the cab of these
units. I think they weighed about thirty pounds each. The radio itself is in the nose of the unit on the left side. You can see part of
the radio in this shot looking into the short nose from the cab. Also note the view out the headlight glass. The headlight assembly has
been removed for safe keeping.
Looking at the rest of the controls it's all pretty basic. Extremely loud 24-RL Brake Equipment, gauges, flow meter, rotair valve
below, bell valve, basic switches, reverser, throttle, and transition control levers, etc.
The view outside is pretty much like any other A unit. I could just imagine the howls of protest if we
put a unit on the lead with those seats today. One other thing you won't see today is an ashtray, no smoking these days. On the
Fireman's side, there are simple steam generator controls for the train line shutoff and the separator blowdown, plus the steam pressure
gauge. Also there is a bracket for the Lunchbox Portable Radio. The Emergency brake valve is on the left, and if you look on the right
side of the photo you can see some of the air brake valves on a bracket in the short nose.
The next 2 shots are a bit blurry on account no flash was used. They show some of the electrical cabinet relays etc. All old cranky
stuff. You don't want to mess with this old wiring if you don't have to as it can be very brittle. This is only a small portion of all
the electrical gear.
For this unit to meet today's standard it would have to be equipped with an appropriate Vigilance System and Event Recorder,
speedometer, TIBS System, appropriate seating and cab heating, and heated windows to name a few. Going to another shot we are now in the
engine compartment. You are looking forward from the right rear door forward past the engine to the door into the cab behind the
Engineer. The Fairbank Morse 1,600 HP eight cylinder opposed piston engine provides plenty of space to each side, but is very high. The
exhaust system is right behind the engine here, and the air intake and roots blower are at the front out of view. However you can see
one of the air intake filters just at the top of the cab door. The governor is facing you at the back of the engine. The second shot
gives a closer view of it. The inspection covers along the side provide access to the fuel injectors, which are mid-cylinder at the
point where the opposing pistons almost meet.
Imagine the hassle of repairing these engines, with two crankshafts, one above and one below. Basically imagine two straight eight
cylinder car engines with no heads bolted together pistons facing pistons. Then connect the crankshafts together through gears, and then
you have it. These are two cycle engines, and the fresh air enters the ports from the cylinders above, and the exhaust exits from the
ports on the cylinders below. It was too dark and I didn't have my big flash with me so I couldn't get shots of the main generator and
air compressor at the front.
Next shown is the Vapour Steam Generator. I don't think this unit was originally equipped with a steam generator, but I stand to be
corrected on that if wrong.
This next photo looks forward down the left side of the engine room.
And this one looks rearward down the right side of the engine room from beside the main generator.
I should mention at this point, the steps going down from the cab to the engine room on this side are very tight. I could hardly get
up and down the steps in and out of the cab. Okay okay, I could loose a few pounds, but you need to be about 150 pounds to get up and
down here easily. Well, there you have it. Now you know what these things look like inside. Now if only we had it running! This unit
would run with minor work, and last ran in 1990.
First Compound Locomotive Built in Canada
NEW YORK, AUGUST 1897.
Canadian Pacific Railway compound 4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler number 639 - Date/Photographer unknown.
The annexed photograph shows a compound ten-wheel locomotive recently built by the Canadian Pacific Railway, in the company's shops
at Montreal, after the designs of Mr. R. Atkinson, mechanical superintendent. Four of these engines have been built, and the one shown
is the first compound locomotive built in Canada. The compound feature of the engine is the same as used by the Pittsburg Locomotive
Works, which was illustrated in "Locomotive Engineering" in February, 1894.
The cylinders of this engine are 19 and 29 x 24 inches, the driving wheels are 62 inches diameter outside of tires.
The boiler is designed to carry a working pressure of 200 pounds, and is 53 3/4 inches diameter at the smallest ring. It contains 216
tubes 2 inches diameter. The tubes give a heating surface of 1,310 square feet, the firebox 118 square feet, making a total heating
surface of 1,428 square feet. The grate area is 28.54 square feet.
Krupp crucible tires are used, United States metallic packing, Richardson safety valves, Westinghouse air brakes and signals, Nathan
lubricators, Gresham & Craven injectors, Crosby gages, and Leach's sander.
The arrangement of the smoke-box in this engine is rather peculiar. the baffle plate being placed in the front of the exhaust pipe.
The exhaust pipe is rather low, being 21 1/4 inches above the bottom of the smoke-box. Between the nozzle and the opening to the
smoke-stack there are two lift pipes, the lower one being 10 inches diameter and the upper one 13 inches diameter. The top of the latter
is almost on a level with the opening of the stack.
Mr. Atkinson. writing to us about this arrangement of smoke-stack says, that it works very well and enables them to keep the
smoke-box clear of cinders without spark hopper or side hole, and at the same time the engine throws fewer sparks than ever they had
before, and the steaming qualities are extremely satisfactory, even with fine coal.